4th Report, 2012 (Session 4): Having and Keeping a Home: steps to preventing homelessness among young people

SP Paper 191

EO/S4/12/R4

4th Report, 2012 (Session 4)

Having and Keeping a Home: steps to preventing homelessness among young people

CONTENTS


Remit and membership

Report
Principal causes of youth homelessness

Family breakdown
Young person at risk – parent/carer attitude
Employability challenge
Inadequate skills
Financial pressures
Trigger points for youth homelessness

Prevention

Mediation
Respite
Prevention through education
Scottish Government
Conclusion

Leaving care

The current system: inherent problems
Scottish Government
Conclusion

Skills

Lack of appropriate life skills
Training and benefits: a ‘Catch-22’
Scottish Government
Conclusion

The experience of taking a tenancy

Community care grant
Accommodation quality
Isolation
Scottish Government
Conclusion

Annexe A: Extracts from the minutes

Annexe B: Oral evidence

Annexe C: Written evidence


Remit and membership

Remit:

1. The remit of the Equal Opportunities Committee is to consider and report on matters relating to equal opportunities and upon the observance of equal opportunities within the Parliament.

2. In these Rules, “equal opportunities” includes the prevention, elimination or regulation of discrimination between persons on grounds of sex or marital status, on racial grounds or on grounds of disability, age, sexual orientation, language or social origin or of other personal attributes, including beliefs or opinions such as religious beliefs or political opinions.”

(Standing Orders of the Scottish Parliament, Rule 6.9)

Membership:

Clare Adamson (until 23 February 2012)
Claudia Beamish (Convener) (until 22 December 2011)
Marco Biagi (from 18 September 2012)
Mary Fee (Convener) (from 10 January 2012)
John Finnie
Annabel Goldie (from 16 November 2011)
Siobhan McMahon
Stuart McMillan (Deputy Convener) (until 18 September 2012)
Margaret Mitchell (until 16 November 2011)
Dennis Robertson
Jean Urquhart (from 23 February 2012) (Deputy Convener from 20 September 2012)

Committee Clerking Team:

Clerk
Douglas Thornton

Assistant Clerk
Ailsa Kilpatrick

Having and Keeping a Home: steps to preventing homelessness among young people

The Committee reports to the Parliament as follows—

PRINCIPAL CAUSES OF YOUTH HOMELESSNESS

Family breakdown

1. Early in our inquiry, we held a round-table evidence session which included Yvette Hutcheson’s account of her own experience of homelessness services and meeting other service users. She gave a very bleak picture of family breakdowns, addiction issues and mental health problems that are most commonly behind youth homelessness—

“If there is a family breakdown—especially if it is caused by addiction or mental health issues—the young person cannot really speak to anyone about it, so they take it on their shoulders and a bad situation just becomes worse until they end up in the system ... Some people might have moved out and managed to get their own tenancy and a flat, but they do not have the knowledge to keep it ... Leaving care is also a big factor. When I was staying in Quarriers, a lot of people were coming through care and it was like a rite of passage for them. They come through the system of foster carers, foster parents, care homes and sheltered accommodation until they get to 16, after which they are no longer part of that system and they are put into a homeless unit until they are 25. At that point, they are moved on to an adult homeless unit, unless they are one of the lucky ones who get enough support to get and keep their own tenancy.”1

Young person at risk – parent/carer attitude

2. She added that some young people couldn’t stay in their family homes because of abuse and had to leave for their own safety.2 She pointed to overcrowding in the family home as a factor and told us—

“When too many people are living in the home, there might be no place for the young person ... There are still parents and carers who think that as soon as someone is 16, they are an adult and it is time to go ... they are told to go and make their own way in life, and they are left to fall into the system.”3

Employability challenge

3. Yvette Hutcheson also raised the question of employability among the barriers to getting out of homelessness—

“When someone is homeless, it is hard enough to get registered with a doctor, never mind find employment ... in that position, they have no confidence in themselves and they do not have a set address. There is also a stigma attached to being homeless with employers, doctors and housing officers—everyone has a take on young homeless people, and the view is generally that they are homeless because they deserve it. It is not easy to find a job, even a cash-in-hand job sweeping up hair in a hairdresser’s. As soon as an employer sees the homeless person’s address and it is the name of a hostel or supported accommodation, a barrier goes up.”4

Inadequate skills

4. Yvette went on to talk about skills problems—

“... people coming through care do not have the greatest exam results, qualifications or life skills behind them, but when someone is in that position, although they want a job, a house and a better life for themselves, they cannot go to college because they will not get housing benefit. The council or whoever will happily pay housing benefit for someone to sit in a hostel all day, but if they want to go out and make something of themselves by doing a part-time or full-time college course, the council will not pay it ... The Princes Trust, Venture Scotland and Fairbridge play an important role in getting young people’s confidence up and teaching them life skills, but there is still a major barrier in the fact that they cannot get to college … There are so many barriers preventing young people from getting a better life for themselves.”5

5. We also met young people currently using homelessness services: in supported accommodation in Inverness and in North Ayrshire and at a community project in Edinburgh. Some of them later came to give oral evidence at one of our meetings. We also took oral evidence from the voluntary sector, academia, the local-authority-led housing options hubs and from the Scottish Government.

Financial pressures

6. The issues that Yvette Hutcheson described came up again and again. We heard that the breakdown of relationships, typically with parents or step-parents and often involving violence, is one of the key reasons for homelessness among young people. Shelter Scotland’s Rosemary Brotchie told us, for example, that nearly half of young people had been living with their parents or family before they became homeless.6 Highland Homeless Trust’s Rhea Nicolson, whom we met in supported accommodation in Inverness, told us that family finance problems had triggered her homelessness—

“My mum is a single parent who only works part time. The reason why I became homeless was that my mum could not afford to keep me as well. Her benefits for me stopped after I turned 16 and she could not afford to keep me. A lot of single parents cannot afford to keep their children, so a lot of single parents’ kids become homeless.”7

Trigger points for youth homelessness

7. Heriot-Watt University’s Suzanne Fitzpatrick described “very clear triggers” for youth homelessness, identified by research. She explained that most such triggers emerged between ages 14 and 17 and included school-related issues like truancy and exclusion, parents with alcohol or drug problems and homelessness as a child. She also referred to “a clear evidential link between someone’s displaying a pattern of running away and their becoming homeless as an adult”.8

8. Shelter Scotland also identified the link between running away and homelessness—

“... the rate of running away among young homeless people is 84 per cent, in comparison with 11 per cent for the general population. We know that young people do not just become homeless; they often have episodes of running away beforehand.”9

9. Against that backdrop of known causes and trigger points, our report explores—

  • what prevention work is undertaken and how effective it is
  • the particular predicament of care leavers
  • the role of life skills
  • what young people’s experiences of tenancy are.

PREVENTION

Mediation

10. Given that so many homeless young people became homeless straight from the family home, we considered whether mediation could play an important role in prevention. Kate Sanford, Policy Manager for Quarriers, believed that it could—

“Young people have said that bridging the gap between them and their family when there were difficulties might have helped them at the time. I know that programmes have tried to do that. People have tried to mediate before the family situation breaks down; obviously, that does not work in all cases … but young people have talked about situations in which family members simply got on top of one another and it was difficult to take a reasoned and rational view of what was going on. Some mediation might have helped.”10

11. Janeine Barrett from North Ayrshire Council, the lead authority in the Ayrshire and South Housing Options Hub, told us that most local authorities focussed “wholly” on prevention activity—

“Even at the point of crisis, we are still looking for opportunities to intervene … we very much believe that young people do not belong in homeless services, because that creates risks and the impact that it has on their lives in the longer term is really negative.”11

12. Describing a prevention project in place for six or seven years, she explained that any 16- to 25-year-old presenting as homeless is interviewed to identify any risks to them in their family home—

“We look for risks of domestic abuse, major addiction issues and risks of violence to the young person. If there are no such risks, the first thing that we do on the day that the young person presents is go out to speak to their mum and dad or their carers to find out why they are threatened with homelessness ... 50 per cent of the young people who present have never been threatened with homelessness ... However, families are really struggling with the other 50 per cent … because of normal teenage behaviour, because the family is in financial crisis and because of a range of reasons.”12

13. According to Janeine Barrett, staff tried systematically and “vigorously to access parents” – by phone or by tracking them down in person – on the day when the young person presented and were successful in most cases. She added that mediation between young people and their families to try to get young people back home had been “really successful in getting families to work together”, with success rates from 65 to 80 per cent—

“Even if we cannot get a young person back home, the least that we hope to do is to redevelop or re-establish the family relationship so that, when the young person is eventually resettled permanently, family support continues to follow them in their own home. We recognise the need for an on-going wider support network when a young person tries to establish their first tenancy.”13

14. Representatives of the other housing options hubs’ lead authorities echoed Janeine Barrett’s account. For example, Clare Mailer from Perth and Kinross Council, in the Tayside, Fife and Central Housing Options Hub, told us that mediation was “a big factor in homelessness prevention”14 in Perth and Kinross and reported good outcomes from Dundee City and Angus—

“Angus ... recently established a young persons’ housing options service … [and] received 140 referrals during the first month, half of which were for young persons who were threatened with homelessness or were homeless. Of those who were threatened with homelessness, only three have been accommodated. Within the first month of the housing options service’s operation, there has been a 75 per cent reduction in homeless presentations.”15

15. She explained that the approach involved close liaison with support and training agencies, intensive mediation and the provision of accommodation, with dedicated officers. Dundee had taken a similar approach focused on conflict resolution, also with good results.16

16. David Goldie from Highland Council, part of the North and Islands Housing Options Hub, told us—

“… we are adopting an approach that is similar—although perhaps not as assertive or as outreach in nature—to that described by Janeine Barrett, which involves family mediation Highland in mediating in disputes that might be emerging in households.”17

Respite

17. We heard from those working with young people in supported accommodation about the importance of respite. Kate Sanford told us that, according to the young people themselves, a break from the situation for both them and their parents could have “stopped the escalation of emotions getting completely out of hand” and prevented some young people from “getting into the vicious cycle of homelessness”.18 Gordon Fleming from the Highland Homeless Trust agreed—

“Respite is sometimes very important. I have seen it working on a couple of occasions, with the young person going back into the family home. Respite has worked in conjunction with mediation, and it has prevented young people from becoming homeless. It prevents their going down to the service point in Inverness and saying, “I want to make a homeless claim”, which is too easy.”19

18. According to Quarriers’ Byron Carruthers, a service user whom we met in supported accommodation in North Ayrshire, respite could make a very real difference to the chances of reconciliation by averting the damage done to relationships once a young person becomes homeless—

“A parent can get comfortable with their child not being there. So, when somebody moves into a hostel, not only can the person in the hostel get used to not being at home, their mum and dad can get used to the child not being there and, if there is any opportunity for the child to go back, it will not happen because the mum and dad are comfortable with the situation. Respite—some time apart—would be brilliant.”20

19. David Goldie also commented—

“Simply enabling family members to step back, have some respite and talk things out among themselves can prevent our having to take a more formal approach with the use of temporary accommodation and everything else that goes with that.”21

Prevention through education

Reaching schoolchildren
20. An important factor was the role of schools in preventing homelessness through raising young people’s awareness of the hard reality and by providing somebody to speak to if they are in a difficult situation at home.

21. Yvette Hutcheson spoke favourably of the concept but also identified potential difficulties—

“… teachers do not have any experience of homelessness and they have not had training to deal with kids who are being abused or kicked out, or experiencing anything in such categories. It would be good if there was someone in the school who the kids could speak to straight off the mark and get the information that they would need if they were going to be kicked out and become homeless. It would be good if there was someone who could tell them, for example, that they could go to the counselling services, or to this place or that place, and to tell them who could put them up and who could help them to get money. It would be much easier if someone could give them a direction to go in. When I became homeless, I did not know where I was supposed to go, who I was supposed to speak to, or what numbers I was supposed to phone—it was really quite hard.”22

22. Asked about peer education, Kate Sanford said that young people tended sometimes to “glamorise” the homelessness system, believing that it would bring them freedom and a great flat – an illusion, she said, that they were “quickly disabused of”.23 She added—

“Young people have come to Quarriers and said, “Is this really what it’s like?””24

23. Quarriers’ Sharleen McLennan, a service user whom we met in supported accommodation in North Ayrshire, concurred—

“Before I became homeless, I had no idea just how difficult it would be. Certainly, I had no one to tell me, “Look, this isn’t the best idea for you. It’s not going to work out.”

“I left my mum’s home through choice because I thought that I would get my own place and that things would be better because I would be independent and could do what I wanted when I wanted. I got my own house but could not cope with it, because I did not have the skills … people end up in that situation because they do not know how hard it is to live on their own and cannot cope.”25

24. Michaela Smith from the City of Edinburgh Council – lead authority in the Edinburgh, Lothians and Borders Housing Options Hub – agreed that a schools-based approach “would, without a doubt, be invaluable”, stating—

“We have a couple of examples of agencies that go into schools and do the kind of work that you have suggested; however, it is more of an add-on and covers quite specific areas when it should probably link in with other life issues that young people need to learn about. After all, these things are interlinked and if you do not get one of them right it will have an impact that might result in someone becoming homeless.”26

25. She emphasised the importance of educating not just the young person but also teachers or health workers who come into contact with them and could identify and act on some of the homelessness triggers.27 Representatives from the other housing options hubs agreed. David Goldie, for example, told us about a new initiative—

“I strongly believe that we should be involved more at the education stage of people’s lives. In an exciting project that will start in August next year, we will establish services in three schools in order to talk to pupils in secondary 4 and above about some of the issues that they will face. That sort of dialogue should form an essential part of preparing pupils for leaving school; after all, the evidence suggests that people often do not have their eyes open when they leave school or when they look for housing and we should certainly do more to prepare them in that respect.”28

26. He explained that homelessness partnership work has engaged education colleagues in “useful discussions”29 and emphasised the importance of timing—

“… sometimes by the time that people present as homeless or present to us with housing problems it is too late. We should have been helping them earlier.”30

27. Clare Mailer told us that four of the six local authorities in the Tayside, Fife and Central Housing Options Hub operate homelessness prevention programmes in schools to greater or lesser degrees—

“Speaking with colleagues from the hub, what came across very strongly was that the roll-out of those school initiatives has proven to be very successful. We need more of them across Scotland—there is no doubt about that—and they should become the norm. The language and the format of the sessions should be interactive and relaxed. We need to express to school pupils the different triggers for homelessness, what the reality is of becoming homeless, and practical information such as budgeting, the cost of housing and the cost of food.”31

28. She added that teachers’ training and awareness were of “critical”32 importance—

“Teachers need to have a clear understanding of the triggers of homelessness—truancy from school, possibly involvement in drugs and alcohol or criminal activities at a young age—and link with homeless services to ensure that we can get in there early, intervene and provide whatever support we can.”33

29. She argued that more schools initiatives, “proven to reduce the number of young 16-year-olds coming out of school and becoming homeless immediately”, were “certainly the way forward”.34

30. Janeine Barrett also spoke extensively about North Ayrshire Council’s education programme in all nine of the area’s secondary schools over the previous seven years, including twilight sessions with guidance teachers enabling them to flag up to homelessness services when a young person showed signs of homelessness indicators, such as falling behind on schoolwork or certain changes in appearance or behaviour. She affirmed that the programme was “invaluable” but recognised that providing evidence of its impact on preventing homelessness was “quite difficult”. She told us that, to address that, the council was developing a new IT system to identify what schools 16- to 18-year-olds presenting as homeless had attended, in order to undertake certain pieces of work in schools with higher levels of homeless presentations.35 She explained—

“What is probably invaluable for us is to go back into schools and ask young people what they need to hear from us. It was really interesting when committee members came to North Ayrshire and spoke to a young person who said, “Do you know what, I got that education in school, but nothing would have stopped me from becoming homeless, because I was out of control”. However, he agreed with what we had been trying to say to him. We need to ask young people, “If you had the chance to go back to before you were homeless, what message would you want to give to yourself?”. We need to harness that knowledge. We need to work with the young people who are presenting and try to work out how we can prevent more young people from becoming homeless in the future.”36

Current challenges
31. Michaela Smith pointed to two factors with the potential to compromise the effectiveness of work with schoolchildren. Firstly, an obstacle for local authority homelessness teams—

“Another key issue is age limits, particularly the lower age limit. At the moment, we and most of the agencies that we deal with can work with an individual only when they are 16, whereas a lot of the valuable work that can be done to prevent future problems needs to be done before the young person reaches that age. It is about linking some of the children’s services with some of the mainstream services for the 16-plus age group.”37

32. Secondly, she raised the importance of articulating prevention messages via the most effective channels—

“… another key point is who young people want to hear that from. The evidence suggests to an extent that some young people will listen to family members more than teachers or role models. The key often involves peer education and young people listening to their peers. That is the big area that we must tap into.”38

33. Similarly, Grant Mackintosh from East Dunbartonshire Council, in the West Housing Options Hub, agreed that there should be “stronger links with education” but indicated that the reach of that type of activity depends on the reception given by school management. He explained that the vast majority of the West Housing Options Hub members go into schools but that getting there was “pretty much dictated” by whether headteachers viewed it as a priority—

“Sometimes it will be done in the odd secondary school; in certain council areas all schools will do it; and in other areas it will be done in one or two schools, or half of them. There is not a comprehensive arrangement that covers all the schools, which is pretty much because of the power that headteachers have in certain local authorities.”39

Scottish Government

Mediation
34. Giving evidence to us, Keith Brown MSP, Minister for Housing and Transport (“the Minister”), recognised the value of mediation and emphasised the “personalisation approach”, in which the person’s circumstances drive the response. He gave the example of a young woman whose mother had died and who found it completely impossible to live with her father—

“… mediation was successful to the extent that they now inhabit the same place and get on as much as they have to.”40

35. The Scottish Government’s Team Leader Homelessness, Marion Gibbs, described mediation as “a quick win” and told us—

“In the hub for Lothian and Borders, because mediation training is fairly expensive, the local authorities that are involved … got members of their staff to join together to undertake specialised training so that they could go back to the local authorities and promote that work, with a particular focus on preventing homelessness.”41

Conclusion

36. Mediation, respite and education are all vital elements of prevention and we recognise the extensive mediation work already being undertaken. We note that, whilst the value of respite was recognised by some, we heard much less about it. We believe that respite should be integrated into the mediation approach, as an option where mediation alone is unsuccessful.

37. As with the other elements of prevention, we note that local authorities are on a broad basis doing good work on in-school preventative activity. We also note, however, that levels of such activity may be inconsistent – for example, taking place in some schools and not in others. Whilst variations may be valid – for instance, there may be more need for preventative activity in schools where there are more apparent risk factors – we note comments in the evidence suggesting that other obstacles are at play. That would seem contrary to the principles of the Getting it Right for Every Child approach. We recommend, therefore, that the Scottish Government work with local authorities on—

  • collecting data on which schools young homeless people attended;

  • identifying what preventative work is undertaken in those schools;

  • in any schools where no such work is carried out, establishing the reasons why; and

  • taking steps to remove any obstacles identified.

LEAVING CARE

The current system: inherent problems

38. We learnt that certain aspects of the care system for looked-after children were increasing the likelihood of homelessness for some young people.

‘Automatic’ homelessness
39. Nick Bell from the Scottish Council for Single Homeless spoke about routine homelessness arising from disjointed care and housing services—

“… we are aware when young people are going to leave care—that transition does not come as a surprise—but, in some local authority areas, young people are still routinely discharged through the homeless route, rather than with a pathway plan that has been worked out for them ... the problem … has existed for some time. Some steps can be taken to improve the situation, but those steps are not taken routinely or uniformly. In a sense, the corporate parent does not actually do very good corporate parenting … There should be a little more cross-working to ensure that young people get the best outcomes possible.”42

40. Heather Gray from the Prince’s Trust Scotland made a similar point—

“Young people are leaving care … without the right support … These young people’s education is being disrupted because they are still getting multiple placements and they are being moved about a huge amount ... there is a very inconsistent picture of support for young people before, during and after leaving care and we need to manage transitions much better.”43

Age of care leavers
41. Heather Gray also contended that looked-after children left care “far too early”44, a view shared by Byron Carruthers, a former care leaver—

“I think that people leave care too young, usually when they are 16 or 17. It is impossible that people, even if they have lived with their mum and dad, would have the appropriate life skills at that age. The age limit for people going into homelessness should not be 16; it should be 18. That would give people more of a chance to learn skills that help them to look after themselves.”45

Subsequent support
42. We heard that leaving care can be very abrupt. One of the young people in supported accommodation whom we met in Inverness, Matthew Friess, said that outreach after leaving care involved the people care leavers knew still supporting them until they were comfortable—

“That did not happen with residential care. When I left, the idea was that one of the staff would act as my support worker and would come and see me once a week just to catch up, but that fell through. It is a vicious circle. You end up back in the same cycle, which makes it inevitable that you will end up back in residential care or wherever.”46

Care leaver protocols
43. Janeine Barrett explained that North Ayrshire Council and two other councils in the Ayrshire and South Housing Options Hub had care-leaver protocols for young people leaving care—

“We start to work with them through the planning discharge process a year prior to their leaving care … with a view to ensuring that young people do not become homeless at the point of leaving care. We look at their support needs, independent living skills, where they want to live, and what support they have in the area that they want to stay in, and we determine at the point of leaving care whether they are suitable for mainstream housing or whether they need to go into supported housing. That is done in conjunction with the young person and with their agreement about what their skills are at the point of moving on from care.”47

Scottish Government

44. The Minister recognised the need to support the transition from the care system to adulthood and emphasised the value of a “wraparound” approach—

“… a wraparound service … is the best approach. For example, I met a young man this morning who was dealing with a number of issues and that kind of wraparound and indeed follow-through service was helping his situation. In the past, getting someone a tenancy was seen as the end of the process but, as most of the people who work in this field now know, tenancies themselves create challenges, as people such as … those who have been in care and younger people suddenly take on a whole host of responsibilities that they previously did not have.”48

45. He also stated that the housing options approach had brought “particular benefits to young people through the use of mediation services and links to employability” and highlighted steps taken to improve support for young people—

“We are clear that supported accommodation should be available for young people across Scotland when they need it. That is why we set up a working group in 2010 to produce recommendations. We have now established an implementation group to take them to the next stage, and it will report in November … Preventing homelessness and providing supported accommodation are not just housing issues ... We are working hard to join up housing policy with policies such as those on getting our priorities right for every child, on care leavers … on young offenders and on youth employment, education and training.”49

Conclusion

46. We recognise the initiatives described by the Minister. We are encouraged to hear that some councils’ care-leaver protocols engage with looked-after children a year in advance of their leaving care. We are greatly concerned, however, by evidence to us indicating that looked-after children were still being “routinely discharged through the homeless route”50.

47. We recommend that the Scottish Government establish which local authorities do not operate effective care-leaver protocols appropriate to the young person and that it take action as necessary to address the situation.

SKILLS

Lack of appropriate life skills

48. We heard time and again that young homeless people had emerged from their families, from schools and/or from care without the skills needed for independent living. Dr Paul Monaghan from the Highland Homeless Trust told us—

“Young people who are homeless typically have inadequate social skills and inadequate awareness of social norms. They are often alienated from society, to use the jargon. We … are in danger of creating a subclass of individuals who do not have the social skills to move forward. Inadequate problem-solving skills and an inadequate ability to manage anger are extremely common, with a consequent inability to access further or higher education, employment and training.”51

49. He explained that those young people “tend to have a very dependent outlook” and had “learned to be helpless”.52 Sharon Munro from Barnardo’s Scotland expressed a similar view—

“We need to ask why looked-after young people in residential or foster care are not equipped with the skills, experience and support that they need in order to make their transitions easier. My experience is that young people are sometimes woefully equipped in that regard. We need to do work that prevents the need for further spending down the line, because we know of the impacts on looked-after young people’s health, education and employment outcomes, which are very poor.”53

50. Byron Carruthers’ experience as a care leaver confirmed that point—

“I was in care when I was younger. When I left, I went straight into my own temporary accommodation, but I felt as if the care system had not taught me enough home skills or living skills for me to feel as if I had moved in. At the age of 16 or 17, you are young and naive enough to think that you can look after yourself, but when you get dropped off at your house and the door is shut, you say to yourself, “Oh, no. It’s happened.” It all hits you at once, because nobody has taught you the essential skills that you need to cook, budget and so on.”54

51. Yvette Hutcheson explained55 that young people in supported accommodation needed to learn about skills as basic as how to budget, cook, do the washing and mop the floor—

“A lot of kids leave school and are then kicked out by their parents, but they do not have that knowledge because those things have always been taken care of.”56

52. She felt that the issues could be covered without adding burdensome elements to the school programme—

“There are cookery lessons, but … some kind of life skills training is needed before people leave school. That could be half an hour a week to tell people how to budget and to make sure that bills are paid. A lot of kids do not have the knowledge. They do not have a clue how to get past the issues, but they are left out there on their own.”57

53. Nick Bell from the Scottish Council for Single Homeless agreed with suggestions that young people should be taught in school about leaving home and about housing but suggested a step before that: continuing professional development in those areas for teachers—

“Teachers cannot teach something that they do not know about, and knowing about housing issues, homelessness and even independent living skills is not just common sense. That knowledge must be acquired. If someone’s experience of life has come through the owner-occupier route, their knowledge of social housing might be quite slim. It is important for those skills to be taught at school, but we need to take a step back and teach teachers in order for them to teach the skills.”58

Training and benefits: a ‘Catch-22’

54. As we have observed, many young people with homelessness problems have education and skill gaps, which add a further barrier to their accessing the workforce and therefore many rely on state benefits. We heard that when attempting to find a route out of that situation via further education or training, young people faced losing their benefits or could not secure funding. According to Kate Sanford—

“… the majority of young people who are supported by Quarriers have had significant disruptions to their education. They tend to have no qualifications and low skills levels. However, once they get in a stable place they often feel that they are ready to catch up. They may want to get ready to have a good job and they appreciate that they cannot have that if they do not have qualifications or skills to offer employers. The next logical step is for them to move on to a college placement, to get the literacy and the numeracy skills—the basic skills—that they need and then to move on to get qualifications. However, someone who is at college full time does not get housing benefit; they can get housing benefit to sit around a hostel all day, but cannot get it if they go to college.”59

55. She described the situation as “a fundamental flaw in the benefits system”, without which more people coming through Quarriers would go on to college.60 Yvette Hutcheson told us—

“When I was in the homeless unit, I considered going to college for something to do and in order to get an extra qualification at the end of the year, but that option was totally shut off because I could not get the funding for it and it would have been too hard to keep my place in the homeless unit.”61

Scottish Government

Lack of appropriate life skills
56. The Minister told us that the curriculum for excellence included a requirement for young people to leave school with an understanding of financial management—

“When the issue has been discussed previously, it has usually been in relation to young people not falling prey to credit cards or other punitive credit facilities and ensuring that they understand what they are getting into with credit. However, the issue is wider than that and is about being able to manage a budget. Much more work is being done on that.”62

57. He added—

“In organisations outwith local authorities, there is a good appreciation of what is required to ensure that people have the necessary budgeting skills to sustain a tenancy. That is happening for people who are coming through the education system now, and support is available for those who have been through the education system and perhaps did not get as much financial education as they should have.”63

58. In subsequent correspondence, the Scottish Government told us more about programmes in schools—

“Learning about social, emotional and economic wellbeing and issues that relate to homelessness permeate throughout many of the experiences and outcomes, but especially in the curricular areas of health and wellbeing, literacy and social subjects.

“As one of our priority areas, the Government is supporting young people in an effort to help them develop better money management skills, including budgeting and understanding credit and debt. In line with Curriculum for Excellence, Financial Education provides a relevant context for the development of skills for learning, life and work. Education Scotland supports a range of activities designed to ensure that teachers have access to up-to-date resources and guidance about the place of Financial Education in the curriculum. These include Tackling Debt: a resource to aid discussion of debt in the classroom and Talk Money, and Talk Solutions: a collection of practical problem solving activities for primary school. And some resources such as 'Tackling Debt' 'Small Change' deal with issues around housing.

“Education Scotland host Financial Learning Online Scotland (FLO). FLO provides support to people involved in financial capability and financial learning. They have close working links with the Scottish Council for Single Homeless who have a wealth of resources for practitioners to use with young people around the pro-s and con-s of leaving home:

www.leavinghome.info.

“Education Scotland has also worked in partnership with the Scottish Book Trust to develop SKINT a resource for practitioners to use as a starting point to promote aspects of financial capability (making ends meet, keeping track of finances, planning ahead, choosing financial products and staying informed about financial matters). This builds on the success of 'On the Money' which also links to a wide range of social issues starting in primary schools. The experiences and outcomes across all areas that are the 'responsibility for all' allows for teachers to address issues around independent living. A wider focus on 'economic wellbeing' may also give opportunities to discuss specific issues, like homelessness, young people in schools are being encouraged to develop a greater sense of self determination as they deal with daily life, face financial 'shocks' and plan to achieve positive outcomes.”64

Conclusion

59. We were particularly struck by the evidence disclosing the profound disadvantage to young people of not possessing essential life skills. We note with interest the information supplied by the Scottish Government on resources available for teachers to support teaching of skills and the changes underway following the introduction of Curriculum for Excellence. Providing access to resources, however, is not the same as ensuring that they are used and used effectively. How are the outcomes measured? We ask the Scottish Government to investigate and report back.

THE EXPERIENCE OF TAKING A TENANCY

Community care grant

60. Community care grants (“CCGs”) are available to help people on low incomes when moving out of residential care to live independently in the community. But we heard that problems with CCGs can be very damaging to the experience of taking a tenancy. Yvette Hutcheson described it as “a big factor” that could undo all the preparatory training and outreach support to help young people to run their first house to the best of their ability.65

Timing
61. Yvette Hutcheson explained that CCGs are supposed to be processed, including payment, within seven weeks on average—

“… in reality, it takes more like 13 weeks. When a person is offered a house, they can go and see it a week later and get their keys and move in a week after that, but there can still be another three and a half months before they get a community care grant to buy basic things such as curtains, carpets and white goods.”66

62. Kate Sanford also spoke about the problem with timing—

“[A] crucial point is that when a young person gets a tenancy they very often have nothing to put in the property and end up either having to sleep on the floorboards in a completely empty house or getting into rent arrears because they are paying for supported accommodation as well as their tenancy. Now that responsibility for community care grants has been devolved to the Scottish Government, we have an opportunity to look carefully at and do something about a situation that is genuinely setting up young people to fail. Community care grants are taking anywhere up to eight, 10 and 12 weeks to come through, which means that young people either have to spend three months with nothing in their flat or get into three months’ rent arrears. That is not a great start for anyone.”67

63. Sharleen McLennan experienced the timing problem for herself—

“I have been in my tenancy for over a year now, but I still do not have everything I need. I applied for the community care grant, but it took about six or eight weeks to come through.”68

64. And Byron Carruthers added—

“Folk … are moving in with nothing. As we speak, plenty of people are sitting in a house that has nothing in it. No wonder they go out and drink. It is a vicious circle that means they will be back in a hostel, because they have nothing to look forward to when they are in their flat.”69

Amount
65. We also heard that CCGs can be insufficient to cover basic needs. Yvette Hutcheson told us, for example—

“… people who apply for a community care grant may get £100 with which they are supposed to furnish their entire property. That is nowhere near enough.”70

66. Yvette Hutcheson also recounted the experiences she had heard from others she had met in supported accommodation, including one case where money for a bed was refused because money had been given for a couch.71

67. Sharleen McLennan gave a similar account of her own experience—

“… when my community care grant came through I was told that a washing machine was not a necessity and that they would not pay me a grant for a washing machine. I do not understand how that is possible, because a washing machine is essential for daily living … They look at a number of things and think, “No, that’s not feasible. We don’t think you should need money for that, because it’s not a necessary item.” That is very unfair because … people are being put into a tenancy in a completely empty property and they get help from nowhere.”72

Possible solutions
68. Highland Homeless Trust and Quarriers spoke of remedies being deployed in the areas that they served. Gordon Fleming told us—

“Through a New Start Highland scheme, we give basic furnishings for people who are moving into accommodation for the first time, particularly young folk. It is not the most salubrious of equipment, but it gives them a starting block so that they have semi-furnished accommodation. They can then start to budget for new stuff or even apply for community care grants to buy new stuff to replace the stuff that they have been given, which is basically second hand.”73

69. Kate Sanford told us—

“We work with Impact Arts on the fab pad project to help young people to learn how to decorate and do the things that they want to do in a property. However, what is needed is the basic funding and we have tried to fill the gap between a young person who has nothing getting their keys, and the allocation of community care grants, by providing loans on the understanding that they will be repaid once the community care money comes through. It is a major issue. We do not believe that just anyone should be asked to move into a tenancy, because it is simply setting them up to fail.”74

Accommodation quality

70. Not only are young people getting out of homelessness unable to furnish their tenancies with the very basics, they are also being offered housing of the very poorest quality. Speaking of the Quarriers youth homelessness charter75, developed by young people supported by Quarriers Youth Housing Support Services, Yvette Hutcheson told us—

“… our charter … is for any young homeless person moving into their home. It is a guide for the local housing authorities to take note of. The charter states:

“I will not be offered a house where I do not feel safe or where I am cut off ... I will be given a brochure”.

“It also says that the house

“will not be damp. It will be clean. It will be painted and any repairs done. It will have working electricity and a working heating system. It will have a working toilet and hot and cold water.”

“Those points are in the charter because we know people in Quarriers who have moved into their new home and not had those things. They have moved in and found bags of rubbish or found that the toilet has been kicked out or taken out—for whatever reason, it is just not there—and they are expected to be happy with that. They are expected to think, “The council is so good to me,” but they do not have running water.”76

71. She described the situation as “a fact” and “a way of life”.77 Highland Homeless Trust’s Dr Paul Monaghan concurred—

“My experience is that the availability of housing to young people is poor and is getting worse. The housing that is offered to them is typically of very poor quality. The standard of customer care that a homeless and vulnerable young person receives from many agencies is very low, partly because few young people have the ability to complain about or challenge appropriately the services that are provided to them.”78

Isolation

72. Young people making the transition into lone tenancy can also find the experience highly isolating. Byron Carruthers told us about his experience of taking on a lone tenancy—

“I had been told that I was getting my own flat. At that young age, I was like, “Yes, brilliant—this will be amazing.” However, when I was dropped off, the door was shut and that was it: “Oh no, wait a minute.” I found it all right to begin with but, after three weeks, I was choking to get back into the care system. You realise by then that this has been a bad mistake…”79

73. Asked what he missed, he explained—

“It was people. I was isolated from everybody. When I was in a unit, there were six children and staff members all the time. It is the shock of the quietness when you shut the door. You think, “Oh my God.” That is what I missed the most.”80

74. Sharleen McLennan described a similar experience—

“It is certainly strange. When I moved into my own tenancy, I thought, “This is great—I have peace and quiet and I don’t have the staff buzzing down all the time.” I think I lasted about half a day and then I sat thinking, “Oh no, I am on my own—what am I going to do?””81

Is lone tenancy an appropriate outcome?
75. Having heard about young people’s experiences of taking on a tenancy, we felt that underlying many of the problems was the solitary nature of the tenancy: sole responsibility, unsupported skills gaps, loneliness. We explored with the housing options hub representatives whether lone tenancy was inherently unsuitable as a housing outcome for young people making the transition out of homelessness.

76. Janeine Barrett explained that, according to recent consultation work with young people asking specifically about what they looked for in housing, the majority had said that they wanted to live on their own.82 She recognised, however—

“Perhaps they want to live on their own but, when they get there, they think that they would rather share with a friend. It does not matter to the council whether someone decides that they want to be a joint tenant or a single tenant. If friends approached us who said that they would prefer to stay together, we could consider that.”83

77. In her experience, failed tenancies were not the reason for young people coming back through the system—

“… that is not the reality. If we can get young people as far as having a tenancy, that tenancy will be maintained. The majority of repeat homeless cases involve young people who are not finishing the homeless process. They might be in temporary or supported accommodation that breaks down, after which they go back home and subsequently come back in again. That is what creates the repeat homelessness statistics … We have found that tenancy sustainment is not such a big issue for us.”84

78. However, shared tenancies were seen as a solution to a different problem: housing shortage. David Goldie agreed that there was “certainly some scope for trying” shared tenancies as they “might just give people the little bit of support that they need”, and added—

“Another reason for trying shared tenancies relates to welfare reform. There is a shortage of supply of one-bedroom properties, but if a single person goes into a two-bedroom property, they will lose benefit. That is another incentive for us to think about shared tenancies, although they will not work in all cases—there are all sorts of issues to do with matching people and so on.”85

79. Grant Mackintosh agreed—

“Shared-tenancy situations tend to arise only when we have two young people who have come through the care system and we join them up. We have not tended to use shared tenancies routinely with unrelated individuals. Because of welfare reform, looking at shared tenancies will be on our agenda to an increasing extent. Such tenancies require considerable planning and preparation. Unless the tenancy is already up and running, a lot of thinking will need to be put into getting it right, because it could go badly wrong. However, shared tenancies are certainly worth considering for the reason that David Goldie gave—there is a shortage of one-bedroom accommodation in most areas.”86

80. Clare Mailer told us that Perth and Kinross Council was beginning to develop a flatmate scheme—

“We are considering it simply because of affordability issues in relation to private sector accommodation and the need to mitigate the impacts of welfare reform. We are certainly looking to take forward such a scheme over the next few months.”87

81. Housing options hubs’ representatives recognised the importance of support networks in remedying the loneliness and isolation often experienced by young people. Grant Mackintosh described befriending as “critical” and David Goldie said—

“Social networks are terribly important for people who take up a tenancy for the first time. The risk of tenancy failure must increase if people lack social and other community networks.” 88

82. Similarly, Janeine Barrett described one of the outreach support services available in the Ayrshire and South Housing Options Hub area—

“East Ayrshire Council has quite a good programme, whereby it has procured befriending services that follow young people into tenancies. The befrienders work with young people while they are homeless and continue to work with them when they are resettled into tenancies, so there is a sense of continuity. The service helps them to integrate into the area that they are staying in and goes on to help them to develop their skills. The befrienders have been there—they have been through the service, which has been successful for them. In East Ayrshire, peer befrienders are being picked for young people.”89

83. Michaela Smith described a comparable approach—

“… we try to build up community networks for the young person, so that they have a stake in the area into which they are moving and have built up relationships and confidence. It is not about just doing things for the young person; it is about enabling them to do as much as possible for themselves, including setting up the tenancy. The idea is to give them something in which they can take pride and to connect them with employment and other opportunities in the community, which will make it easier for them to settle into new accommodation or a new area.”90

Scottish Government

Community care grant
84. We raised with the Minister the issue of CCGs and the point that they currently should take seven weeks to process but can take 13 weeks. Asked whether the Scottish Government could ensure that CCGs be given on the same day that young people get the keys to their new tenancies, the Minister responded—

“It is important that we try to ensure that everything is in place at the appropriate time … I can see the benefit in people getting the community care grant at the same time as the tenancy, but I would have to … look at the issue in more detail.”91

85. We then asked the Minister whether he accepted that a young person allocated with accommodation might require a CCG to get the essentials for that accommodation and that, if that CCG took several weeks to materialise, the tenancy could fail and put the young person in a much riskier situation than before being allocated the accommodation. He told us that “an awful lot of work” had been done to make sure that keys and tenancies were not “just handed over in that way”92 and said—

“There are many different ways of doing that, such as making sure that the person who is taking on the tenancy has been given some financial education—an awareness of budgeting, and so on—that they might not have had before, which is vital to sustaining a tenancy … I accept that, if the absence of the grant and what it can do for people means that they are less prepared to take on a tenancy, that is not a good thing. I can see your point, but we are trying to make sure that people are as prepared as possible from day one when they take on a tenancy.”93

Isolation
86. In view of the isolation issues described to us, we asked the Minister whether the Scottish Government had looked into whether adult fosterers could play a role for some young people – i.e. giving a young person a home with responsible adults who were happy to support them. In response, we heard that some young people were in accommodation with adults present in a supportive role and that certain young people “going through various looked-after options” looked “for a supportive landlord or landlady-type arrangement” but that the Minister was unaware of an adult fostering scheme. He cautioned that there may be reasons why it should not be done, but undertook to examine the issue.94

Conclusion

Community care grant
87. We note the Minister’s comments on the importance of financial education to young people’s preparedness to take on a tenancy. However, we believe that no matter how prepared a person is, a time lag of weeks – or, as we heard in evidence, months – in paying CCGs can be insurmountable. We welcome the Minister’s commitment to look in detail at whether the Scottish Government could ensure that CCGs are paid on the same day that young people get the keys to their new tenancies and await a further response. We recognise that, as a result of the UK Welfare Reform Act 2012, the Scottish Government will be responsible for the delivery of CCGs from April 2013 and that it is currently considering how successor arrangements could best be delivered. We view this as an important opportunity to improve on the current timescales and await a further response.

Accommodation quality
88. We are very troubled to learn that young people are sufficiently concerned about substandard accommodation to produce a charter to aspire to minimum standards and the most basic human needs. It is of course utterly unacceptable for anyone to be offered such housing. We ask the Scottish Government to confirm what steps are being taken to ensure that minimum statutory standards are met in all cases.

Isolation
89. We note the Minister’s undertaking to examine whether adult fosterers could play a role in supporting some young people through the early stages of independent living. We also note the efforts made by housing options teams to create support networks and use befriending strategies to cultivate similar support. We heard in evidence that, because of limited housing options in the context of welfare reform, shared tenancies are being considered for social tenants in receipt of housing benefit from April 2013. We recognise that, to address isolation specifically, shared tenancies might be supportive for some young people, but only with their agreement. We recommend that social housing providers consider them, with due caution and appropriate risk assessment.

90. We recognise that the Scottish Government and local authorities are working hard to prevent youth homelessness and we have heard many examples of good practice. However, problems persist and, given welfare reforms, we are aware that the landscape is changing and that preventing youth homelessness may become more challenging. We therefore recommend that the Scottish Government take an overview of all of the different strategies currently being used in different local authority areas, ascertain the effectiveness of each and identify any localities where performance needs to be improved. We ask that the Scottish Government report the overview back to us.

ANNEXE A: EXTRACTS FROM THE MINUTES

3rd Meeting, 2011 (Session 4) Tuesday 13 September 2011

Work programme: The Committee considered its work programme and agreed to hold a series of one-off evidence sessions on homelessness and young people…with a view to setting remits for inquiries.

7th Meeting, 2011 (Session 4) Tuesday 8 November 2011

Work programme (in private): The Committee noted preparations for the round-table session on homelessness and young people on 29 November […]

9th Meeting, 2011 (Session 4) Tuesday 29 November 2011

Homelessness and young people: John Finnie declared an interest as a Director of Highland Homeless Trust. The Committee took evidence, in a round-table discussion, from—

Nick Bell, Manager, Youth Homelessness, Scottish Council for Single Homeless;

Rosemary Brotchie, Senior Policy Officer, Shelter;

Suzanne Fitzpatrick, Professor of Housing and Social Policy, Heriot Watt University;

Heather Gray, Director, The Prince's Trust Scotland;

Yvette Hutchison, Quarriers;

Dr Paul Monaghan, Director, Highland Homeless Trust;

Sharon Munro, Children’s Services Manager - 16+ Edinburgh, 16+ ‘At Home’ and LSCS, Barnardo’s Scotland.

10th Meeting, 2011 (Session 4) Tuesday 13 December 2011

Homelessness and young people: The Committee considered its approach to and agreed a remit for an inquiry into homelessness and young people. The Committee also agreed to issue an open call for written evidence and to consider, in private at a future meeting, its approach to oral evidence, in light of responses to the call for written evidence.

4th Meeting, 2012 (Session 4) Tuesday 6 March 2012

Having and Keeping a Home: steps to preventing homelessness among young people (in private): The Committee considered and agreed an approach to oral evidence.

11th Meeting, 2012 (Session 4) Tuesday 12 June 2012

Having and Keeping a Home: steps to preventing homelessness among young people: John Finnie declared an interest as a director of the Highland Homeless Trust. The Committee took evidence from—

Gordon Fleming, Unit Manager, Julia Edgar, Matthew Friess, and Rhea Nicholson, Highland Homeless Trust;

Kate Sanford, Policy Manager, Byron Carruthers, and Sharleen McLennan, Quarriers.

12th Meeting, 2012 (Session 4) Tuesday 19 June 2012

Having and Keeping a Home: steps to preventing homelessness among young people: John Finnie declared an interest as a director of the Highland Homeless Trust. The Committee took evidence from—

Janeine Barrett, Principal Officer Homelessness, North Ayrshire Council (lead authority, Ayrshire and South Housing Options Hub);

David Goldie, Head of Housing, The Highland Council (lead authority, North and Islands Housing Options Hub);

Grant Mackintosh, Housing Manager, East Dunbartonshire Council (West Housing Options Hub);

Clare Mailer, Service Manager - Homeless, Perth and Kinross Council (lead authority, Tayside, Fife and Central Housing Options Hub);

Michaela Smith, Housing Options and Access Manager, City of Edinburgh Council (lead authority, Edinburgh, Lothians and Borders Housing Options Hub).

13th Meeting, 2012 (Session 4) Tuesday 26 June 2012

Having and Keeping a Home: steps to preventing homelessness among young people: John Finnie declared an interest as a director of the Highland Homeless Trust. The Committee took evidence from—

Keith Brown MSP, Minister for Housing and Transport, and Marion Gibbs, Team Leader Homelessness, Scottish Government.

14th Meeting, 2012 (Session 4) Thursday 6 September 2012

Having and Keeping a Home: steps to preventing homelessness among young people (in private): The Committee agreed to defer, to its next meeting, consideration of a draft report on its inquiry into Having and Keeping a Home: steps to preventing homelessness among young people.

15th Meeting, 2012 (Session 4) Thursday 13 September 2012

Having and Keeping a Home: steps to preventing homelessness among young people (in private): The Committee agreed to defer, to its next meeting, consideration of a draft report on its inquiry into Having and Keeping a Home: steps to preventing homelessness among young people.

16th Meeting, 2012 (Session 4) Thursday 20 September 2012

Having and Keeping a Home: steps to preventing homelessness among young people (in private): The Committee considered a draft report. Various changes were agreed and the Committee agreed to consider a revised draft at its next meeting.

17th Meeting, 2012 (Session 4) Thursday 27 September 2012

Having and Keeping a Home: steps to preventing homelessness among young people (in private): The Committee considered a revised draft report and the report was agreed for publication.

ANNEXE B: ORAL EVIDENCE

9th Meeting, 2011 (Session 4) Tuesday 29 November 2011

Nick Bell, Manager, Youth Homelessness, Scottish Council for Single Homeless;
Rosemary Brotchie, Senior Policy Officer, Shelter;
Suzanne Fitzpatrick, Professor of Housing and Social Policy, Heriot Watt University;
Heather Gray, Director, The Prince's Trust Scotland;
Yvette Hutchison, Quarriers;
Dr Paul Monaghan, Director, Highland Homeless Trust;
Sharon Munro, Children’s Services Manager - 16+ Edinburgh, 16+ ‘At Home’ and LSCS, Barnardo’s Scotland.

11th Meeting, 2012 (Session 4) Tuesday 12 June 2012

Gordon Fleming, Unit Manager, Highland Homeless Trust
Julia Edgar, Highland Homeless Trust;
Matthew Friess, Highland Homeless Trust;
Rhea Nicholson, Highland Homeless Trust
Kate Sanford, Policy Manager, Quarriers.
Byron Carruthers, Quarriers;
Sharleen McLennan, Quarriers.

12th Meeting, 2012 (Session 4) Tuesday 19 June 2012

Janeine Barrett, Principal Officer Homelessness, North Ayrshire Council (lead authority, Ayrshire and South Housing Options Hub);
David Goldie, Head of Housing, The Highland Council (lead authority, North and Islands Housing Options Hub);
Grant Mackintosh, Housing Manager, East Dunbartonshire Council (West Housing Options Hub);
Clare Mailer, Service Manager - Homeless, Perth and Kinross Council (lead authority, Tayside, Fife and Central Housing Options Hub);
Michaela Smith, Housing Options and Access Manager, City of Edinburgh Council (lead authority, Edinburgh, Lothians and Borders Housing Options Hub).

13th Meeting, 2012 (Session 4) Tuesday 26 June 2012

Keith Brown MSP, Minister for Housing and Transport, and Marion Gibbs, Team Leader Homelessness, Scottish Government.

ANNEXE C: WRITTEN EVIDENCE

Aberlour Child Care Trust
Barnardo's Scotland
Barnardo's Scotland, case study, further submission
Barnardo's Scotland, further submission
Big Lottery Fund
Keith Brown MSP, Minister for Housing and Transport
Keith Brown MSP, Minister for Housing and Transport
Centre for Excellence for looked after Children in Scotland
Citizens Advice Scotland
Edinburgh Cyrenians
Families Outside
Matthew Friess
Grassmarket Community Project
Heriot Watt University
The Highland Council
Paradigm Research
Prince's Trust Scotland
Quarriers
Quarriers, Our Charter, further submission
Quarriers, further submission
Scottish Council for Single Homeless
Scottish Council for Single Homeless - Annex 1
Scottish Refugee Council
Scottish Throughcare and Aftercare Forum
Scottish Women's Aid
Shelter Scotland
Shelter Scotland, further submission
Supported Accommodation Implementation Group
Ypeople 


Footnotes:

1 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 29 November 2011, Cols 128-9

2 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 29 November 2011, Col 129

3 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 29 November 2011, Cols 128-9

4 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 29 November 2011, Col 148

5 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 29 November 2011, Col 148

6 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 29 November 2011, Col 130

7 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 12 June 2012, Cols 513-4

8 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 29 November 2011, Col 154

9 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 29 November 2011, Col 145

10 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 12 June 2012, Col 512

11 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 19 June 2012, Col 528

12 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 19 June 2012, Cols 528-9

13 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 19 June 2012, Cols 528-9

14 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 19 June 2012, Col 530

15 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 19 June 2012, Col 533

16 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 19 June 2012, Cols 533

17 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 19 June 2012, Cols 534

18 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 12 June 2012, Col 512

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20 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 12 June 2012, Col 513

21 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 19 June 2012, Col 534

22 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 29 November 2011, Col 132

23 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 12 June 2012, Cols 511-2

24 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 12 June 2012, Col 512

25 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 12 June 2012, Col 492

26 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 19 June 2012, Col 535

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38 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 19 June 2012, Cols 537-8

39 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 19 June 2012, Col 538

40 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 26 June 2012, Col 574

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42 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 29 November 2011, Col 131

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44 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 29 November 2011, Col 130

45 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 12 June 2012, Cols 492-3

46 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 12 June 2012, Col 500

47 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 19 June 2012, Cols 539-40

48 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 26 June 2012, Col 570

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50 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 29 November 2011, Col 131

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53 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 29 November 2011, Col 133

54 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 12 June 2012, Col 491

55 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 29 November 2011, Col 131

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59 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 12 June 2012, Col 493

60 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 12 June 2012, Col 493

61 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 29 November 2011, Col 148

62 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 26 June 2012, Col 574

63 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 26 June 2012, Col 574

64 Minister for Housing and Transport, written submission, 27 August 2012

65 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 29 November 2011, Col 136

66 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 29 November 2011, Col 136

67 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 12 June 2012, Col 495

68 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 12 June 2012, Col 496

69 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 12 June 2012, Col 496

70 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 29 November 2011, Col 136

71 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 29 November 2011, Col 136

72 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 12 June 2012, Col 496

73 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 12 June 2012, Col 502

74 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 12 June 2012, Cols 495-6

75 Quarriers. Our Charter www.scottish.parliament.uk/S4_EqualOpportunitiesCommittee/Inquiries/Quarriers_submission_Our_Charter.pdf

76 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 29 November 2011, Cols 137-8

77 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 29 November 2011, Col 138

78 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 29 November 2011, Col 139

79 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 12 June 2012, Col 501

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82 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 19 June 2012, Col 547

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84 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 19 June 2012, Col 548

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89 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 19 June 2012, Col 547

90 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 19 June 2012, Col 532

91 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 26 June 2012, Col 570

92 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 26 June 2012, Cols 572-3

93 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 26 June 2012, Cols 572-3

94 Scottish Parliament Equal Opportunities Committee. Official Report, 26 June 2012, Cols 588-9

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